The History of Israel (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations)

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[Steven_Drakeley]The History of Indonesia (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations

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Every school and public library should update its resources on the history of Israel with this engagingly written and succinct narrative history from biblical times. The History of Israel (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations) - Kindle edition by Arnold Blumberg. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device,‚Äč.

Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Item specifics Condition: Brand New: A new, unread, unused book in perfect condition with no missing or damaged pages. See all condition definitions - opens in a new window or tab Read more about the condition. About this product. Shipping and handling. Part of the problem is that many Indie ideas, such as those underlying king- ship, overlapped with ideas about the world already prevalent in Indonesia.

Indeed, this is precisely why many Indie ideas were so readily accepted. Another part of the problem is that Indie ideas the same can be said for Indie technologies and art forms were not simply accepted, they were also assimilated.

click The earli- est examples of Indonesian writing we know of, dating from the fourth century, is in South Indian Pallawa script. Usage of the script became widespread, but within a few centuries it evolved into a localized script known as Kawi. Likewise, the stonemasonry skills involved are considered to be Indie in origin, as is the story the life of the Buddha that the panels depict. But the faces that look back at us from these exquisite carvings are Indonesian faces, and the details of everyday life and dress depicted are clearly indigenous. Similarly, literary forms of Indian origin such as the Mahabarata and the Ramayana were not merely reproduced, but were modi- fied or became material for indigenous literature.

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For example, the famous Javanese epic poem the Arjunawiwaha The Marriage of Arjuna , composed in the Mataram court during the first half of the eleventh century, although based on the Mahabarata, is quint- essentially Javanese. Key Indie religious ideas were also modified for domestic con- sumption or were applied on a selective basis. A prime example is the Hindu caste system, which in Indonesian contexts was never practiced with anywhere near the rigor and complexity that gen- erally pertains in India.

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Hindu and Buddhist ideas were often blended with each other and with indigenous beliefs to construct what was arguably a new belief system. For example, Kertanegara, the ruler of Singasari from to , established a syncretic cult Early History to the Coming of Islam im:. Even where Indie forms became dominant, they rarely totally eclipsed local elements. Moreover, the apparent domination of Indie elements was not always what it seemed. In the famous Javanese wayang performance art form usually involving pup- pets , which utilizes episodes loosely drawn from the Mahabarata, new clown characters were introduced into the story, the best known of whom is Semar.

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Moreover, as a government with impeccable establishment credentials and connections, it can reasonably expect to enjoy far more cooperation from the bureau- cracy and the army than did Wahid and Megawati. Ireland was the year factor in and the science contradiction spread in Crimea, which has a special autonomous status within Ukraine, is geographically, demographically, and historically unique. The president must obtain a majority of the vote; if no candidate receives a majority, there is a run-off election between the top two vote-getters. By the time of the third century c. You are covered by the eBay Money Back Guarantee if you receive an item that is not as described in the listing. As for the local Ruthenian nobility, it was under great pressure to convert to Catholicism and Polonize itself.

In the Javanese version the joke is that while he appears common, coarse, and foolish he is really a local god in disguise Ismaya, protector of the island of Java. Semar, despite his appearance, is more powerful as well as kinder and wiser than the Hindu gods who are otherwise central characters in the story. A closer look at the wayang reveals that the Indie ele- ments that appear so central are actually relatively unimportant: the wayang is a rich embodiment of Javanese values and culture.

Our brief survey of the rise and fall of the Indic-influenced states of Indonesia in this period would be incomplete without some further mention of Majapahit: as the greatest state to exist in Indonesia before the late colonial period, it is often heralded as a precursor of the Republic of Indonesia. After Airlangga's death, Mataram divided into two states, Kediri and Janggala. Kediri went on to become a powerful state in the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries, controlling the key ports in southwestern Borneo, Bali, and southern Sulawesi for a time. The mysterious adventurer, Ken Angrok, seized power in the smaller kingdom of Janggala and conquered Kediri in Having done so, he established a new capital at Kutaraja and renamed it Singasari, which also became the name of the state.

Majapahit emerged from Singasari in , a product of complex political conflicts involving rival princes within the Singasari dynasty and a punitive Mongol invasion force from China. The successful rider of these waves of domestic and international conflict and intrigue, Vijaya also known as Kertarajasa , established his new capital at Majapahit. Majapahit, situated on the Brantas River plain, was better located than was its principal predecessor, Mataram. Like Mataram, Majapahit had access to a significant rice surplus.

But unlike Mataram, Majapahit 8 The History of Indonesia had much better access to the coast and thus was much better able to control and thereby to extract wealth from trade. Moreover, located at the eastern end of Java, it was better placed to control access to the spices emanating from Maluku.

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This was important, as international demand for spices had risen dramatically. Majapahit made itself the supplier of Maluku spices to the world, acquiring them in exchange for rice.

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Majapahit also used its power to prevent rivals from accessing the spices. On the back of its strategic advan- tages Majapahit, also blessed by the astute statecraft of "Minister" Gadjah Mada from roughly to , sought to control the entire archipelago, including the remnants of Srivijaya. The extent and degree of its power almost certainly never matched this ambi- tion, but there seems little doubt that for a time Majapahit exerted power and influence throughout the archipelago as no power had before it. As such it established a model of greatness to which many have aspired since and is an evocative "legend" of indigenous prowess and power, especially for the Javanese.

The greatness resided not only in the realm of politics and power, but also in arts and culture. For instance, during the Majapahit era, the great epic poem Nagarakertagama was composed probably in , and the Semar character was introduced into the wciyang. The major exception to this phenomenon is Indonesia, which ironically today is home to the world's largest Muslim population. As far as we know, Islam made few if any Indonesian converts until around and was probably not the majority reli- gion in Indonesia before around The first indigenous Muslim community in the region that we are fairly certain about was in the port of Pasai in northern Sumatra in In the same area, however, it seems likely that there was a Muslim state in existence perhaps as early as a century earlier.

Trengganu, on the northeast- ern coast of the Malay Peninsula, seems to have been an indigenous Muslim state around Prominent perhaps royal indigenous Muslims were present at the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit court from the s. Demak northern coast of Central Java , Sulu the Philippines , and Ternate Maluku apparently adopted Islam during the second half of the fifteenth century.

Early in the sixteenth century, Brunei northeastern Borneo , Banten, and Cirebon northwestern Java were Muslim, and by the end of the century other key points such as Buton southeastern Sulawesi had followed suit. Roughly up until the sixteenth century, Islam's presence in the region had been largely confined to coastal areas prominent in the trading network, but it seems to have begun spreading inland in some areas. More key centers converted to Islam in the early seventeenth century, during which Islam also penetrated farther inland. By around , Islam was dominant in most coastal areas of Indonesia except those toward the eastern end of the archipelago and had spread inland to most of Java and Sumatra.

Since that time, Islam has continued to spread throughout Indonesia; indeed, it is still spreading today in remote parts of Kalimantan and Papua. Some parts of Indonesia and some ethnic groups have largely rejected Islam, usually where they adopted Christianity, which arrived in Indonesia with Europeans in the sixteenth century. An important exception is the island of Bali, which has largely clung resolutely to its Balinese version of Hindu-Buddhist beliefs.

There is another dimension of the Islamization of Indonesia process that warrants mentioning. Alongside the geographical spread of the religion, there is a process whereby Indonesian Muslims, particu- larly over the last century, have deepened their overt commitment to the faith. The pace of the geographical spread may have slowed in recent decades, but at the same time the pace and intensity of the movement toward a deeper or more manifest commitment to the faith has increased markedly.

Indonesians may have begun adopting Islam much earlier than the thirteenth century, but this is unlikely. Assuming that the pro- cess did only begin around , then this raises two questions: why then and why not before?

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Arab traders, already a presence in the region long before the Prophet's time, increased markedly in number after most of the Arab world embraced Islam. Moreover, it was not long before that these Muslim Arab traders were joined in the region by Persian, Indian, and Chinese Muslims. Thus despite ample contact it appears that Islam initially held little appeal to Indonesians. Johns has pointed out, the period in which Indonesians began to adopt Islam coincides with the period when Sufi forms of Islam became popular throughout the Islamic world.

It is reasonable to assume that these and other characteristics of Sufism, such as an accepted place for magic and a generally tolerant approach to other religious beliefs, would have appealed to Indonesian reli- gious tastes that were for the most part openly syncretic at the time. It is worth noting that Islam in Indonesia still has a distinct Sufi tinge, although it is a characteristic in decline.

Perhaps nowhere was Sufism likely to have had more appeal than in the courts, where sophisticated and eclectic religious practices were avidly pursued. Another reason why rulers and courtiers may have begun to find Islam attractive around this time is the spread throughout the Islamic world of Persian ideas about kingship and associated forms of pomp and ceremony surrounding royal ritual, including elaborate royal titles. More likely, their importance lies in smoothing the way for rulers to adopt Islam for more practical reasons to do with trade and politics.